Thoracic Research and Practice
Original Article

Pulmonary Invasive Fungal Disease: Ultrasound and Computed Tomography Scan Findings


Department of Radiology, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences Faculty of Medicine, Mashhad, Iran


Research Center for Patient Safety, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences Faculty of Medicine, Mashhad, Iran


Department of Pediatric Hematology and Oncology and Stem Cell Transplantation, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences Faculty of Medicine, Mashhad, Iran

Thorac Res Pract 2023; 24: 292-297
DOI: 10.5152/ThoracResPract.2023.23013
Read: 1023 Downloads: 315 Published: 11 September 2023

OBJECTIVE: The importance of ultrasound in diagnosing pulmonary invasive fungal diseases (IFD) has yet to be assessed. Thus, this study aimed to evaluate the frequency of sonographic findings in patients suspected of an invasive pulmonary fungal infection.

MATERIAL AND METHODS: This prospective longitudinal study examined all patients with lung lesions in imaging modalities and suspected IFDs referred to Dr. Sheikh and Akbar pediatric hospitals from 2019 to 2022. Considered variables were the halo sign in the computed tomography (CT) scan; the target sign in the ultrasound and contrast-enhanced CT scan; the cavity; wedge-shaped consoli- dation; and pleuritis and extrapulmonary invasion to the chest wall or subdiaphragmatic invasion in both modalities. All patients who underwent lung CT scans and ultrasounds until the final diagnosis were followed up. The degree of agreement between ultrasound and CT scan findings and the sensitivity, specificity, and diagnostic accuracy of these signs were assessed.

RESULTS: This study involved 40 patients with an average age of 7.16 ± 4.23 years. Acute leukemia was the commonest underlying dis- ease detected in 17 (42.5%) cases. The target sign in ultrasound (61.9%) and the halo sign in CT scan (71.4%) had the highest frequency among the variables in patients with IFD. Cohen’s kappa coefficient agreement in both modalities was 0.5 for the cavity, with significant relation (P = .02). The Cohen’s kappa was less than .17 for other findings (P > .05). The diagnostic criteria in the simultaneous examina- tion of the fungus target in ultrasound and halo in CT scan showed a sensitivity of 82.4% and specificity of 76.5%, respectively.

CONCLUSION: Combining the characteristic findings of ultrasound and CT-scan provides a higher value in diagnosing pulmonary invasive fungal disease.

Cite this article as: Ali Alamdaran S, Bagheri R, Fatemeh Darvari S, Bakhtiari E, Ghasemi A. Pulmonary invasive fungal disease: Ultrasound and computed tomography scan findings. Thorac Res Pract. 2023;24(6):292-297.

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